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Although cheese is very old food that originated at the beginning of agriculture

t is still not possible to guarantee the production of cheeses of the highest quality. differences in their compositional properties. Most cheeses are also very dynamic products and change a lot during ripening. For these reasons, cheese-making requires more scientific knowledge to be successful than any other food product. The goal of this dairyify is to provide practical knowledge about cheese and the problems that arise during its production in a unique question-and-answer format that enables cheesemakers to find information quickly. Often it is possible to just give a general description of the subject and highlight its main points.With around entries, the goal is to get the reader to think about the correct lines; Cheesemakers need more information before they can be sure that is the solution to a given problem. Thus, most entries contain a list of further reading to which the reader is referred for more detailed information on the problem discussed.

There are relatively few simple cause-and-effect relationships in cheese, and varying one factor often changes many other parameters in cheese. additional entries that contain information relevant to the topic in question. This dairyify assumes the level of dairy chemistry and cheese science and technology common among people who work in the dairy industry. Hence, there is hardly any discussion about the technology of cheese-making or the science that goes beyond the essentials for the topic under consideration. Foreword follows a list of texts on cheese science and technology and dairy chemistry that the reader will turn to for more information on the science and technology behind cheese-making. I hope dairyify will find the Cheesemakers benefit and solve at least some of their problems. Finally, I would like to thank the 21 contributors of this Dairyify for sharing their experiences so generously and for making my job as editor a pleasure.

Various types of cheese

Acid-coagulated types (eg cottage cheese, quarg, cream cheese).

  •  Varieties that are coagulated by a combination of heat and acid (e.g. ricotta).
  •  Rennet-coagulated cheeses (most types), which can be divided mainly according to the technology of their production and maturation


  •  extra-hard cheese (Granatype) (eg Grana Padano) [96];
  •  hard cheese (e.g., cheddar);
  •  semi-hard cheese (e.g.Monterey Jack);
  •  cheese of the Swiss type (e.g. Emmentaler);
  •  Dutch style cheese (e.g. Gouda);

Large cheese families

  • Brine-ripened varieties (eg feta);
  • varieties of pasta filata (e.g. mozzarella);
  •  surface cheese (white) ripe in mold (e.g.Camembert cheese);
  •  blue cheese (e.g. Roquefort);
  •  ripe cheese on the surface (smear) (e.g. Tilsit). 
  • Rennet curd cheese can also be dried or processed into processed cheese.

Many of these main families contain varieties that are similar in terms of the technology of their manufacture and the microbiology and biochemistry of their maturation, but which can be made from milk of different species. Imitation cheese products, cheese analogues and enzyme-modified cheese (used as a flavour) are also produced. firm body and caramel taste and long shelf life..


Although raw, untreated milk is used to make certain types of cheese, Usually on a small scale, most cheese-making milk today undergoes various treatments prior to making. Most of the milk for cheese making is pasteurized today (e.g. 72 ° C for 15 s, although higher temperatures can be used to kill Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis). large quantities of cheese of uniform quality. Raw milk can also be thermalised at the factory when it is received in order to extend its shelf life at refrigerated temperatures by killing psychrotrophic organisms. However, heated milk is always fully pasteurized before the cheese is made. Other pretreatments that affect the microbial quality of milk include the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or activation of the H2O2 ± lactoperoxidase ± thiocyanate system, a very potent native antibacterial system in milk. micro-filtered to remove bacterial endospores that can cause problems such as B. late gas blowing. The composition of cheese milk is generally controlled by standardization to defined the casein: fat ratio by varying the fat content. The cheese milk controls the composition and in particular, the proportion of dry fat of the cheese maximizes the cheese yield and helps to control the cheese quality. Making cheese milk

Milk for cheese making is usually not homogenized because rennet gels are made with homogenized milk poorly synergistically and the resulting cheese has a poor texture raw cream or blue cheese milk, however, is sometimes homogenized to local. to activate lipoprotein lipase in milk and thereby increase the lipolysis desired in these varieties. The pre-acidification of milk promotes rennet activity and leads to the demineralization of the curd and can be practised in the production of Camembert cheese. In addition to its use for protein standardization, ultrafiltration can also be used to remove much of the moisture from milk, as is sometimes done in the production of certain varieties (e.g., melted feta cheese or cream cheese.). such as quarg, ricotta or cream cheese). CaCl2 is a common additive used in cheese making and adding it to milk improves rennet coagulation and syneresis properties of the milk. Nitrate is sometimes added to milk to make salted cheese in brine to prevent Clostridium tyrobutyricum from growing, which can result in delayed gas bubbles. Low levels of colour can be added to type Dutch cheese to give the final product a slight yellow tinge, while much higher levels can be added to the milk for making Red Cheddar and cheeses.